kw coding style#


This is a document describing the kw preferred coding style. It is important to highlight that we got inspiration from Linux and Git code style; for this reason, we copied and pasted many pieces from both projects.


To help us enforce our codestyle decisions we utilize the shfmt code formatter in our CI pipeline. Please refer to the shfmt repository for instructions on how to install it on your specific linux distribution, it is available as a package for most distributions and as a plugin for most IDEs and text editors. To format a file using shfmt:

shfmt -w -i=2 -ln=bash -fn -ci -sr FILE

To check a file and error with a diff when the formatting differs:

shfmt -d -i=2 -ln=bash -fn -ci -sr FILE


We adopt two whitespace indentations.

Avoid tricky expression#

We try to keep things as simple as possible in kw, for this reason, we try to avoid:

  • Multiple assignments on a single line;

  • Using more than 10 local variables per function.


Of course, we value the code legibility, for this reason, we accept a few exceptions.

Breaking long lines and strings#

The default limit on the length of lines is 80 columns and this is a strongly preferred limit. This is not a rule to be blindly followed, we understand that in some cases we need more columns; however, try to do you best for keeping the code under 80 characters.

Sometimes long strings are a bit cumbersome to keep under 80 columns, in kw we adopt string concatenation for this case as the example below illustrates:

my_long_string="kw ran into an unrecoverable error while trying to parse your file."
my_long_string+=" Do you wish to continue anyway [Y/n]?"

Placing Optional Bash Keywords and Spaces#

Some of the bash keywords may accept or not the reserved word then or do which can be added at the end of the expression or in the next line. In kw we put the then statement at the end of the expression (after the semicolon), as the example below illustrates:

if [[ <expression> ]]; then

The same idea applies for loops:

for <expression>; do


while <expression>; do

For the case statement, we add one level of indentation after the case statement:

case <value> in
    exit 22



Our approach for implementing function is really similar to the ones adopted by the Linux Kernel, the description here is an adaptation of the Linux Kernel codestyle documentation.

Functions should be short and sweet, and do just one thing. They should fit on one or two screenfuls of text (the ISO/ANSI screen size is 80x24, as we all know), and do one thing and do that well.

The maximum length of a function is inversely proportional to the complexity and indentation level of that function. So, if you have a conceptually simple function that is just one long (but simple) case-statement, where you have to do lots of small things for a lot of different cases, it’s OK to have a longer function.

However, if you have a complex function, and you suspect that a less-than-gifted first-year high-school student might not even understand what the function is all about, you should adhere to the maximum limits all the more closely. Use helper functions with descriptive names.

Another measure of the function is the number of local variables. They shouldn’t exceed 5-10, or you’re doing something wrong. Re-think the function, and split it into smaller pieces. A human brain can generally easily keep track of about 7 different things, anything more and it gets confused. You know you’re brilliant, but maybe you’d like to understand what you did 2 weeks from now.

Bash supports function declarations with or without the parentheses and with or without the reserved word function. In kw source code, we always add the function reserved word and the parentheses even if the function does not have any parameter (without an extra space). Additionally, we add the curly braces in a single line. For example:

function modules_install_to()

For the function returning we try to respect the errno codes, for example:

function mk_list_installed_kernels
    if [ "$?" != 0 ] ; then
      complain "Did you check if your VM is running?"
      return 125 # ECANCELED

As you can notice from the examples, we use snake case for function definitions, this is valid for all the kw code.

Command substitution and arithmetic expression#

We prefer $( ... ) for command substitution; unlike ``, it properly nests.

When using command substitution to access the contents of a file the cat command ($(cat <file>)) can be replaced with a < which is equivalent but faster ($(< <file>)). E.g.: $(cat "$file") => $(< "$file")

For arithmetic expansion we use (( ... )).

Check for command#

If you want to find out if a command is available on the user’s $PATH, you should use the function command_exists() available under kw lib. If you are working in a plugin or have a strong reason not to use command_exists(), you should use command instead of which since the letter is not machine parsable and its exit code is not reliable across platforms.

How to include/import files#

Do not source code using . or source unless you have a very strong argument. We have a helper function for that named include in and it should be used any and every time a file needs to be sourced, . --source-only should only be used to source itself. The include function guarantees us that no file will be sourced twice, making the kw dev life easier with one thing less to worry about.

Test function name#

Tests are an important part of kw, we only accept new features with tests, and we prefer bug fixes that come with tests. For trying to keep the test comprehensible, we adopt the following pattern for naming a test:


To better illustrate this definition, see the example below:

function test_detect_distro()

This function name indicates that we are testing detect_distro function. Another example:

function test_save_config_file_check_description()

The function save_config_file is tested with a focus on description validation.

Resources for tests#

We encourage the use of the following features offered by shunit2, kworkflow’s unit test framework.

  • Functions oneTimeSetUp and oneTimeTearDown: If defined, these functions will be called once before and after any tests are run, respectively. Notice that shunit2 is sourced once for each test file, so the scope of these functions is effectively the test file (e.g. in which they are defined.

  • Functions setUp and tearDown: If defined, these functions will be called before and after each test (i.e. a test function) is run, respectively.

  • Shunit2 offers a temporary directory that will be cleaned upon it’s exit. The path to this directory is stored in the variable SHUNIT_TMPDIR. Note however that this directory is not cleaned up between tests, so you may need to clear it in the tearDown function.

We also encourage each assertion in each test to be identified with the variable LINENO. This variable expands to the line number currently being executed. This way the origin of an error message can quickly be identified by a developer. We also encourage using the assert_equals_helper helper function, which provides a wrapper capable of spitting a useful error message in case the assertion fails. Ideally, one should do either:

assert_equals_helper "$error_message" "($LINENO)" "$expected_output" "$output"


assertEquals "($LINENO)" "$expected_output" "$output"

Help functions#

Each subcommand may have its help function that details its usage. This function should be located as close as possible to the feature they document; ideally, we want it in the same file. For example, you should find details on using the build option in the, and for kernel-config-manager in the file

Handling Signals#

It is natural for commands to set global variables or to create temporary files during their execution. However, all commands should expect to receive signals and be able to properly handle them. If you implement a new feature, take some time to check if it pollutes the environment. If it does, make sure to handle it’s de-pollution upon receiving a SIGINT or a SIGTERM: an interrupted command should always leave the environment in the same state as it was prior to its invocation. Convenience functions for this purpose (setting and resetting handlers for arbitrary signals) are implemented in src/signal_manager.

Use printf instead of echo#

We stay away from echo as it is not always consistent with its output depending on system and bash version. Therefore always use printf instead, it stays consistent across multiple platforms. If you need to add extra lines while generating a string you can use the $'\n' literal to add a new line character or other special characters.

Single quotes instead double quotes#

Whenever you have a variable that stands for a string that doesn’t contain shell expansions, use single quotes instead of double quotes. For example:

var='literal-value' #Single quotes


path="${HOME}/path/to/file" #Double quotes

String concatenation#

If you have any type of string concatenation, always use ${<string>}. For example:


How to handle return#

When handling return value and its manipulation inside kw, use the errno code pattern. By adopting this pattern, we standardize the expected errors and provide meaningful error codes for the user. Finally, always add a comment next to the return value with the string reference to it, for example:

return 22 # EINVAL
return 2 # ENOENT

Avoid short options#

Usually, commands available in the terminal provide two ways of passing the same option: through a short option and through a long option. The short options are convenient for daily use; however, for writing kw code it is better to use the long option because it is more human readable. See the below example:


rsync -vr dir1 dir2


rsync --verbose --recursive dir1 dir2

Declaring shebangs#

Avoid using “#!/bin/bash” when writing new bash files. This usual shebang may not work for some linux distributions that don’t follow FHS, such as NixOS. Use “#!/usr/bin/env bash” instead.


When in doubt of a coding style matter not specified in this file, it is always a good idea to search how other sections of the codebase use the term you are in doubt about. But be aware that some sections may unfortunately be at odds with the specified style rules (and pull requests to correct them are very welcome). Finally, feel free to also suggest modifications to this document – to add absent rules – or mention any style doubts in your pull request.