Linux kernel provides multiple mechanisms for debugging; in particular, kw tries to simplify the debug process for three of them: events, ftrace, and dmesg. All the debug options intend to support remote and local targets.
In order to take advantage of the event feature wrapped inside kw, it is necessary to follow the small syntax described below:
Let’s detail the above syntax step-by-step:
event: It should be an event available in the kernel, e.g., /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/amdgpu_dm. If you don’t know what kind of events you have available for your debug task, you can use the list option. Notice that users can specify multiple events by separating them with ‘;’.
specific-event: Inside each event (informed via event), users can specify which specific event they want to check. For example, inside amdgpu_dm we have amdgpu_dm_dc_clocks_state, which can be translated to “amdgpu_dm:amdgpu_dm_dc_clocks_state”.
filter: Usually, each event supports filters and users can specify it via kw debug by using the filter syntax. For example: amdgpu_dm:amdgpu_dm_dce_clocks_state[sclk_khz > 0].
Notice that users have a flexible way of defining the events they want to trace by using the event syntax. Additionally, the debug option provides other features that simplify the work with debug data from Linux Kernel.
The kernel provides a feature named ftrace that enables developers to have a high-level view of the code execution. Kw wraps this feature under the --ftrace option. If the user does not provide any output, kw will display all available ftrace options.
The ftrace debug feature provides different trace algorithms (you can see all options by using the --list option) and simplifies the output. The --ftrace option wraps these two configurations by using the following syntax:
Let’s take a close look at the above syntax:
ftrace_type: Use this option to indicate the ftrace algorithm that you want to use.
filter: Ftrace allows users to filter its output. This option sets specific function names or even a pattern filtered by ftrace; notice that you can pass multiple filters separated by commas.
Dmesg log is vital for debugging issues in the Linux kernel, and kw debug provides the --dmesg option to help developers quickly collect this information. Notice that this feature work in the local and remote context.
There are multiple debug options available under ftrace and event. For this reason, kw debug provides the list feature responsible for showing the available options. If you use --list with no parameters, kw will show all ftrace algorithms and events options; you can provide the specific debug option by using ftrace or event. In particular, if you want to list details about a particular event, you can use event:TARGET_EVENT.
When users cancel some of the debug operations, we might have a situation where we accidentally leave some configurations set, which may cause problems when trying to use the debug option a second time. In particular, it is common to have a hung process in the trace_pipe file. The option --reset is responsible for resetting and killing any debug option process.
- -d, --disable:
Disable all events specified inside --event “” and --ftrace. This feature does not apply to --dmesg option.
- -l, --list[=(<ftrace> | <events>)]:
If used together with the event option, it will list all available events. If a specific event is informed via --events “<event>”, this option will only list specific events related to the “<event>”. This feature does not apply to --dmesg option.
- -k, --history:
Create a debug directory that keeps track of all debugs made by the users. It creates a directory and organizes it based on an ID and date.
- -f, --follow:
Real time output.
- -c, --cmd:
If this parameter is used combined with --event or --ftrace, the following sequence will happen: (1) Enable specific trace, (2) collect trace in background, (3) run the command, (4) disable traces. When used with --dmesg, kw will (1) clean the dmesg log, (2) run the command, (3) and collect the log.
Verbose mode is an option that causes the kw program to display debug messages to track its steps. This functionality is very useful during the debugging process, allowing you to identify possible errors more easily.
For this set of examples, let’s suppose that you are debugging the AMD GPU driver. You can start by trying to learn the options available to you via:
kw debug --list
The above command will show all debug options available in the target kernel. Now that you can see all the available options let’s suppose that you have the amdgpu driver; you can list its specific events by using:
kw debug --list --event "amdgpu_dm"
You can also use:
kw debug --list="ftrace" kw debug --list="events:amdgpu_dm"
Now that you found all the trace options available for your target driver, you can enable that event trace and follow it in real-time by using something like this:
kw debug --event "amdgpu_dm:amdgpu_dm_atomic_update_cursor" --follow
If you want to save the trace output in a log file, you can use the flag --history:
kw debug --event "amdgpu_dm:amdgpu_dm_atomic_update_cursor" --follow --history
If you interrupt the above command with Ctrl + C, kw will disable the target event in the target machine. In other words, something similar to the below command will be executed:
kw debug --event "amdgpu_dm" --disable
Another powerful debug trick is the --cmd option that makes kw enable the target trace, execute a specific command, disable the trace at the end, and bring the log to the host machine:
kw debug --event "amdgpu_dm:amdgpu_dm_dce_clocks_state[sclk_khz > 0]" --cmd "DO SOMETHING"
If you want to see the dmesg log from the target machine, you can use:
kw debug --dmesg
For keeping following the dmesg log and save it locally, you can use:
kw debug --dmesg --follow --history
Let’s say that you want to run a command in a remote machine and collect the dmesg log after the command execution, you can use:
kw debug --dmesg --cmd "/home/user/specific_app"
Suppose that you have an AMD and you want to track the display manager’s behavior. You can use the below command to achieve this goal:
kw debug --ftrace="function_graph:amdgpu_dm*" --follow --history
If you want to run a command and capture the ftrace, you can use:
kw debug --ftrace="function_graph:amdgpu_dm_*" --cmd="/root/igt-build/tests/kms_atomic --run-subtest test-only" --history
Reset the debug option to its default:
kw debug --reset